Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.
The kidneys are the primary organs of the urinary system. Other organs of the urinary system are ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The functions of the kidneys are regulation of blood levels of ions, regulation of blood pH, adjusting blood volume, regulation of blood pressure, production of hormones, and the production and excretion of waste. The kidney produces two hormones: calcitrol and erythropoietin. The kidney contain a million of nephrons. Nephrons are the functional units of the kidneys. Blood cells and proteins are too large to fit through the filtration of membrane. Therefore, the presence of either molecules in urine indicate kidney dysfunction. The juxtaglomerular apparatus in the nephron measures the body’s blood pressure. An overview of glomerunephritis, nephrotic syndrome, kidney stones, pyelnephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and renal failure follow in the chapter. The chapter concludes with a discussion of disorders of the bladder and urinary tract.