Archive for September, 2009

Cardiovascular Disease

September 24, 2009

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, by Salvo and Anderson.

Chapter 7 reviews the cardiovascular and lymphatic/ immune systems. Blood transports oxygen from the lungs and give nutrients from the digestive tract. It also works to regulate our pH balance and removes waste. Blood adjusts body temperature and protects the body from disease by clotting when the dermis is broken. The different types of blood cells are: Erthrocytes, Thrombocytes, Leukocytes, and Hemoglobin. The blood vessels that attach to the heart are: arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins. Arteries distribute blood to the body and branch off the aorta. They have thick walls with smooth muscle and elastic tissues. Veins return deoxygenated blood to the heart, except the pulmonary veins, which carry oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart. Interstitial fluid surrounds and baths cells and tissues and functions as a medium between blood and tissues. The excess of interstitial fluid is called edema. Lymph is interstitial fluid that drains into the lymphatic vessels and is filtered in order to remove pathogens and cellular debris. The cardiovascular system involves the blood, heart, and blood vessels. The heart has four chambers: left/ right atria, left/ right ventricles, and two valves: the tricuspid and mitral (bicuspid). There are massage techniques that involve moving the lymphatic system and allowing the blood to flow more fluidly throughout the body. The therapist needs to protect him/herself against open cuts or wounds in case the client has any transmittable diseases. For an aneurysms, arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis you must consult the clients doctor before applying deep pressure and deep tissue massages. When a client has had a cardiac arrest there first needs to be clearance from the clients health care provider, and then you may massage them depending on their stage of recovery. Make sure to keep the client warm because they may have a continuing circulation problem.

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Respiratory Pathologies

September 21, 2009

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, by Salvo and Anderson.

Chapter 8 tells us about respiratory pathologies. The lungs are primarily responsible for gas exchange in the body. The respiratory system supplies the body with oxygen and expels carbon dioxide from the body. Oxygen is required for metabolic reactions in the body’s cells. Excessive amounts of carbon dioxide produce acids that can be toxic to the body’s cells. When the respiratory system eliminates excess carbon dioxide, it prevents acid buildup in the blood, thereby regulating the pH of the blood. The larynx, also known as the voice box, has three important functions: controlling the flow of air during breathing, protecting the airway, and producing sound for speech. The vocal cords are located in the center of the larynx. Although much research has been conducted, scientists are still unsure exactly what function(s) the sinus cavities have. Some possibilities include the following: warming and humidifying air, assisting in regulation of intranasal pressure, contributing to immune defenses, increasing mucosal surface area, lightening the skull, giving resonance to the voice, absorbing shock, and contributing to facial growth. The diaphragm is the main muscle involved in inspiration (breathing in). The diaphragm descends as it contracts, enlarging the thoracic cavity. Air pressure in the lungs drops, allowing air to be drawn into them. Pulmonary ventilation is a mechanical process involving the contraction of muscles, the relaxation of muscles, and the elastic recoil of the alveoli. The therapist should listen for the following respiratory-related sounds: high-pitched sounds, wheezing, rattling, crackling, and deep or harsh sounds. Wheezing indicates narrowed respiratory passages, and crackling or rattling can indicate excess mucus in airways. Breathing through the mouth generally indicates the presence of constrictions or blockages in air passageways (such as when a person has a cold). Be careful when a person has asthma not apply too much pressure on the chest by soothing motions. The following techniques can be useful: deep friction; kneading; ischemic compression; deep, gliding strokes; vibration; and percussion.

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Health Assessment, comment

September 17, 2009

Sorry to hear about your current turn of events. Legal counsel and a refresher course is readily available. See the links below.

Original Post:
September 16, 2009
Title: Health Assessment, question
I have been a professional massage therapist for many years without any problems. Now, I am being sued. It is being claimed that I missed the symptoms and signs of appendicitis during my assessment. Can you help me to obtain legal counsel and a refresher course for every massage therapist at my massage center?

Original Post:
September 11, 2009
Title: Health Assessment
Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, by Salvo and Anderson.

I found Chapter two to be very helpful due to the client and therapist interaction methods. Since we are going to be dealing with people on a regular basis we need the knowledge of procedure which assures them that they will be taken care of in a professional and safe manner. By documenting their potential contraindications we are able to protect them and ourselves, and by them telling us what areas they have problems with, it allows us the therapist to complete the task of "healing" or "treating" the client according to their personal needs. By charting our sessions, we may see improvements over the course of time, and if no improvements are shown, then we may change or perfect our ways of giving treatment so the client may receive results. It is also important for us to assess the client in there health and conditions to see if we may notices anything that could be a contraindication that the client may be unaware of. It also helps us know what areas to avoid giving treatment to, and what areas to focus on.

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Legal Services for Massage Therapists

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Neoplasia and Massage

September 16, 2009

The benefits for cancer patients to receive massage therapy. It reduces muscle tension, decrease in pain, improves sleep, bolsters immune function, and reduces other side effects. The types of cancerous tissue are: Carcinoma, melanoma, sarcoma, leukemia, and lymphoma. The methods for treating cancer: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, bone marrow transplant. The risks include: blood clots, infection, edema, reduced function. Massage promotes relaxation, address edema under health care provider’s supervision, but could be contraindicated due to nausea and vomiting. Chemotherapy could make people: susceptibility to infection, bruising, bleeding, and mouth sores, anemia, skin changes, hair loss, digestive problems, decreased stamina, peripheral neuropathy, fever, muscle tension. Massage can help with relieving anxiety and pain, help with body image, help muscles in the affected areas, but could be contraindicated due to nausea, vomiting, anemia, skin issues, or fever.

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Reproductive Conditions

September 16, 2009

The reproductive system: the primary organs are the male testes and the female ovaries. The secondary male reproductive organs are: Epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis. The secondary female reproductive organs are: the Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, clitoris, labia. The female fertility cycle: Phase 1 – Menstruation, Phase 2 – Preovulatory phase, Phase 3 – Ovulation, Phase 4 – Postovulatory phase. Refer the client to the doctor: genital discharge, breast discharge, fever accompanied by groin pain. Palpable masses in the female breast, palpable masses in the abdominopelvic region, unexplained skin lesions Sexually transmitted diseases can be spread by: sharing needles, multiple sexual partners, sex with a person of unknown sexual history, sexual intimacy with person who has been diagnosed with an STD. Also skin to skin contact, drug or alcohol use, hemophilia, blood transfusion, infants with HIV-positive mother, lack of education or concern. Dysmenorrhea also means painful menstruation: massage techniques would be deep gliding, deep friction, kneading, stretches, application of moist heat. During pregnancy, the woman must lye on her side and not on her stomach. Do not massage during the first trimester.

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Urinary System Pathology

September 16, 2009

The urinary system filters waste out of the blood and maintains a homeostatic blood pressure. It regulates the ion levels, pH, and volume of the blood. The kidneys regulate blood pressure, produce hormones, and excrete wastes. The Nephrons filter out substances out of the blood, give useful substances to the blood, and form urine. We should refer the client to a doctor if we see: discoloration or blood in urine, fever accompanied by abdominal, groin, flank, or low back pain, painful, difficult, or frequent urination, nausea and vomiting, unusual swelling or edema, decreased urinary output. Do not massage abdominal region for Cystitis. Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of glomeruli in the kidneys. Gout is high levels of uric acid in the blood. Kidney stones are crystals of salt in the urine. Massage will reduce pain, stress, and muscle spasms in the back. Polycystic kidney disease is a common genetic disorder that you need clearance from a doctor in order to massage.

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Health Assessment, question

September 16, 2009

I have been a professional massage therapist for many years without any problems. Now, I am being sued. It is being claimed that I missed the symptoms and signs of appendicitis during my assessment. Can you help me to obtain legal counsel and a refresher course for every massage therapist at my massage center?

Original Post:
September 11, 2009
Title: Health Assessment
Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, by Salvo and Anderson.

I found Chapter two to be very helpful due to the client and therapist interaction methods. Since we are going to be dealing with people on a regular basis we need the knowledge of procedure which assures them that they will be taken care of in a professional and safe manner. By documenting their potential contraindications we are able to protect them and ourselves, and by them telling us what areas they have problems with, it allows us the therapist to complete the task of "healing" or "treating" the client according to their personal needs. By charting our sessions, we may see improvements over the course of time, and if no improvements are shown, then we may change or perfect our ways of giving treatment so the client may receive results. It is also important for us to assess the client in there health and conditions to see if we may notices anything that could be a contraindication that the client may be unaware of. It also helps us know what areas to avoid giving treatment to, and what areas to focus on.

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Gastrointestinal Pathology

September 16, 2009

Carbohydrates are made up of monosaccharides, proteins are made of up amino acids, a triglyceride, which is a common type of lipid, consists of one glycerol molecule that has three fatty acid chains attached to it. The digestive process involves: Ingestion, secretion, peristalsis, digestion, absorption, and defecation. The liver produces bile, the pancreas produces enzymes, and the gallbladder stores excess bile. Overweight for frame and height, hard masses in abdomen, and rebound tenderness are some therapeutic assessments. Three body types are: Endomorph, Mesomorph, and Ectomorph. Refer client to health care provider if they experience abdominal pain, blood in stools, difficulty swallowing, and masses in abdomen, nausea or vomiting, oral lesions, rebound tenderness, fatigue of lethargy. Anorexia is the prolonged avoidance of eating. Appendicitis symptoms are: acute pain in abdomen, vomiting, fever, and elevated white blood cell count. Do not massage. Bulimia is eating followed by vomiting. Massage helps client improve self-image. Constipation: massage helps lightly over abdominal area. Do not massage if client has gallstones or acute gastritis, hepatitis B or C.

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Endorine System Pathology

September 11, 2009

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, by Salvo and Anderson.

Endocrine system assessments requires the therapist to become very aware of the clients symptoms. We need to be aware of the following: Are the restrictions in their activity, if the client has diabetes: when did they eat last, etc., does the client have any lesions: if so can they feel them, does the client have vision problems, is their menstrual cycle regular? Other assessments are: is the skin in good condition: dehydrated, good pigment, etc. Are the hair and nails in good condition? Does the client appear overanxious or fatigued? These are things I was unaware to look for before… that these tools are signs of endocrine system contraindications. What I found most interesting and helpful was the diagram on page 183 that showed Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism and their contrasting symptoms.

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Nervous System Pathology

September 11, 2009

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, by Salvo and Anderson.

The nervous system is probably the most scariest of conditions for me because it deals with the brain and controlling the body. In most cases, people with neurological conditions need to have permission from their medical physician before receiving treatment from a massage therapist. I would think the blind would be an exception for that because their condition does not pose as a potential threat to the therapist to make their condition worse. I have experience with blind people and I am aware that their guide dogs are working dogs that are not meant to be a distracted or played with by other people. I don’t know how comfortable I would be to perform massage on most of these nervous conditions, because most of them require experience or a thorough knowledge of their medical condition. For example, I would choose to research very carefully before deciding to work on a paraplegic person to be sure not to harm them since they have no sensations in their lower limbs. My brother has Epilepsy so I am very familiar with what to do during a seizure if it occurs during a massage. But I would need to know what their history was so I may look out for what could trigger a seizure for the client.

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Musculoskeletal Pathologies

September 11, 2009

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, by Salvo and Anderson.

This chapter is one of my favorite subjects because it talks about the skeletal and muscular systems of the human body and their pathologies. I love looking at the differences between muscle tissue types because the fibers fascinate me. Knowing how the body moves is very important for a massage therapist, obviously if we are assist with helping restore movement to certain areas. If the client as a musculoskeletal disease then the therapist needs to ask the client to return with a doctors note before giving treatment. If they have atrophy, then the massage should be slow and soothing. Gliding strokes may be used for bunions and arthritis. Other types of skeletal conditions like a sway back and pagets disease maybe treated with a relaxing massage to help ease the muscle tension. The conditions I’m most familiar with are strains and sprains, because as a former athlete, I can relate to those injuries.

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Skin Pathology

September 11, 2009

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, by Salvo and Anderson.

The skin is the largest organ in the human body and it acts as a shield that protects us from diseases, viruses, and infections. Yet the skin itself may acquire diseases just like any other part of the human body. The skin is also the first thing massage therapist notice on every human being because this is what we will be coming in contact with. We need to know what areas to avoid if any of the dermis is infected or agitated in some way. The types of dermal pathologies are: Macule, Papule, Patch, Plague, Wheal, Nodule, Tumor, Vesicle, Bulla, Pustule, Cyst, Telangiectasia, Scale, Lichenification, Keloid, Scar, Excoriation, Fissure, Erosion, Ulcer, Crust, and Atrophy. (On a more personal note… I can’t really decide which one is more gross!) All of these skin lesions have a long list of conditions, and the one I’ve had a close up look at was athlete’s foot because my father had it for a long time.

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