Archive for November 29th, 2010

Mental Health Disorders

November 29, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

Mental health is defined as the capacity to cope and adjust to the ongoing stresses of everyday life. Significant impairment of mental health to the point of inability to function is characterized as mental disorder. Neurotransmitters in the brain that are associated with mental and emotional disorders are gamma-aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. The following anxiety disorders are reviewed in this chapter: generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobia disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. This chapter also discussed depression. Depression is classified as a mood disorder and as an affective disoder. The two hallmark signs of depression are prolonged period of profound sadness with marked hopelessness and a loss of self-esteem with a lack of interest in any activity. The chapter concludes with a discussion on emotional release during massage.

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Urinary Pathologies

November 29, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

The kidneys are the primary organs of the urinary system. Other organs of the urinary system are ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The functions of the kidneys are regulation of blood levels of ions, regulation of blood pH, adjusting blood volume, regulation of blood pressure, production of hormones, and the production and excretion of waste. The kidney produces two hormones: calcitrol and erythropoietin. The kidney contain a million of nephrons. Nephrons are the functional units of the kidneys. Blood cells and proteins are too large to fit through the filtration of membrane. Therefore, the presence of either molecules in urine indicate kidney dysfunction. The juxtaglomerular apparatus in the nephron measures the body’s blood pressure. An overview of glomerunephritis, nephrotic syndrome, kidney stones, pyelnephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and renal failure follow in the chapter. The chapter concludes with a discussion of disorders of the bladder and urinary tract.

Gastrointestinal Pathologies

November 29, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

Classes of nutrients for the body are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water. Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids break down into smaller molecules. Carbohydrates break down into simple sugars called monosaccharides. Proteins break down into amino acids. Lipids break down into glycerol and fatty acids. The digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract and it’s accessory digestive organs. The digestive process begins in the mouth, then the food moves down into the stomach where it is mixed with gastric juices. The food becomes chyme and moves into the small intestines. Next the chyme moves through the colon for absorption and lastly, defecation. General dysfunctions of the GI tract include nausea, vomiting, constipation and diarrhea. Mumps, thrush, tonsillitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are diseases of the upper GI tract. Diseases of the lower GI tract include polyps, diverticulitis, diverticulosis, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, intestinal obstruction, appendicitis, and hemorrhoids. The chapter also gives an overview of jaundice, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, and pancreatitis. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the different types of hernias.

Respiratory Pathologies

November 29, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

The respiratory system functions are exchange of gases, regulation of blood pH, providing sense of smell, filtration of incoming air, production of sounds, and elimination of water and heat. Pulmonary ventilation is the movement of air into and out of the lungs by way of muscle contraction and relaxation, and the elastic recoil of the alveoli. The diaphragm is the primary muscle involved with inspiration. Common cold, sinusitis, pharyngitis, larnygitis, influenza, and infectious mononucleosis are the upper respiratory tract infections discussed in this chapter. Massage is contraindicated during acute and active stages of these infections. Overviews of low respiratory tract infections of pleurisy, pneumonia, and tuberculosis are discussed. There are two types of pleurisy: wet and dry. Wet pleurisy refers to an increase in intrapleural fluids, while dry pleurisy refers to decrese in intrapleural fluids. The most common infectious disease causing death in the US in pnenumonia. Tuberculosis is a bacterial lung infection transmitted by inhalation of infected droplets. Massage should be postponed until 4 weeks after the start of treatment. The two main stages of disease are primary and secondary. Most people with primary TB are asymptomatic or the patient may experience generalized symptoms. Secondary TB can present with cough with blood sputum, high fever, night sweats, general anxiety, and shortness of breath. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are characterized by obstructed airflow that worsens with exertion. The chapter overviews asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonconiosis, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, and obstructive sleep apnea. Pulmonary edema and embolism are the vascular disorders discussed. Acute respiratory distress syndrome can result in multiple organ failure and death making it a medical emergency. The chapter concludes with a brief overview of hay fever.

Lymphatic and Immune System Pathologies

November 29, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

The lymphatic system is composed of lymph, lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and lymphoid tissue of organs and glands. The function of the lymphatic system is to drain excess interstitial fluid, transport dietary lipids and vitamins, and to carry out immune functions. The chapter goes into more detailed overview of these functions. The body has two types of immunity: natural and acquired. The two types of lymphocytes are B and T. Both are formed in red bone marrow. B lymphocytes mature in the red bone marrow while T lymphocytes mature in the thymus. The chapter concludes with discussion of conditions of the lymphatic and immune systems.

Cardiovascular Pathologies

November 29, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

This chapter begins with descriptions of the three types of fluids: blood, interstitial fluid, and lymph, that assistance in the maintenance of homeostasis. The main components of the cardiovascular system are blood, heart and blood vessels. The function of blood being to transport glucose, amino acids, lipids and hormones, transporting oxygen to lungs and nutrients to digestive tract, removing wastes, regulation of pH and body temperature, protection of the body from disease, and blood clotting. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes are the types of blood cells. Pericardium, myocardium, endocardium, and epicardium are the four layers of the heart. The type of blood vessels are arteries, capillaries, and veins. Arteries take blood away from the heart, while veins take blood to the heart. Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels and functions to distribute nutrients and remove waste through interstitial fluid. Disorders of blood and circulation are discussed. Followed by an overview of disorders of the heart. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the diseases of arteries and veins.


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