Posts Tagged ‘Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists 2nd edition’

Medications, comment

March 3, 2011

I am like you in that I did not realize the facts about acetaminophen and antidepressants. Another fact I came across is that antidepressants are used for chronic pain. Wow, there is a lot to learn.

Original Post
November 26, 2010
Title: Medications

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

I found this chapter to be quite vital for client care. A huge percentage of clients will be on some form of medication. Therefore, it is vital to understand how these medications may interact with the body. It becomes critical to understand medical contraindications to avoid causing more harm to the client. I did not realize that while acetaminophen is classified as a NSAID but does not have antiinflammatory properties. I also was unaware that antidepressants were prescribed for eating disorders and migraine headaches. I plan to also maintain a list of medication recalls to share with clients that may be unaware.

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Cancer

December 1, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

Cancer is a leading cause of death in the US. The American Cancer Society advocates for massage therapy for cancer patients to assist in comfort and improving quality of life. The leading site for cancer in women are the breast, while the prostate is the leading site for men. Another name for a tumor is neoplasm. The study of malignant tumors is called oncology. Angiogenesis is the ability of cancer cells to develop a vascular network which allows for tumor growth and access to the bloodstream. The key component for cancer cell invasion is the ability for the cancer cells to migrate. The lymphatic system and bloodstream are the most common routes used for metasis. Benefits of massage for cancer patients include boosting of the immune system, reduction or prevention of edema, decrease nausea, reduction of fatigue, assistance with quality of life and survival of skin during radiation therapy. When servicing cancer patients, it is advisable to also address any other medical conditions. Massages should be scheduled during high energy times and deep, vigorous massage should be avoided. It is vital to note for fatigue and discomfort during massage. Current methods of treatment for cancer patients include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The chapter concludes with an overview of types of cancer in various regions of the body.

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Mental Health Disorders

November 29, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

Mental health is defined as the capacity to cope and adjust to the ongoing stresses of everyday life. Significant impairment of mental health to the point of inability to function is characterized as mental disorder. Neurotransmitters in the brain that are associated with mental and emotional disorders are gamma-aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. The following anxiety disorders are reviewed in this chapter: generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobia disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. This chapter also discussed depression. Depression is classified as a mood disorder and as an affective disoder. The two hallmark signs of depression are prolonged period of profound sadness with marked hopelessness and a loss of self-esteem with a lack of interest in any activity. The chapter concludes with a discussion on emotional release during massage.

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Urinary Pathologies

November 29, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

The kidneys are the primary organs of the urinary system. Other organs of the urinary system are ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The functions of the kidneys are regulation of blood levels of ions, regulation of blood pH, adjusting blood volume, regulation of blood pressure, production of hormones, and the production and excretion of waste. The kidney produces two hormones: calcitrol and erythropoietin. The kidney contain a million of nephrons. Nephrons are the functional units of the kidneys. Blood cells and proteins are too large to fit through the filtration of membrane. Therefore, the presence of either molecules in urine indicate kidney dysfunction. The juxtaglomerular apparatus in the nephron measures the body’s blood pressure. An overview of glomerunephritis, nephrotic syndrome, kidney stones, pyelnephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and renal failure follow in the chapter. The chapter concludes with a discussion of disorders of the bladder and urinary tract.

Gastrointestinal Pathologies

November 29, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

Classes of nutrients for the body are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water. Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids break down into smaller molecules. Carbohydrates break down into simple sugars called monosaccharides. Proteins break down into amino acids. Lipids break down into glycerol and fatty acids. The digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract and it’s accessory digestive organs. The digestive process begins in the mouth, then the food moves down into the stomach where it is mixed with gastric juices. The food becomes chyme and moves into the small intestines. Next the chyme moves through the colon for absorption and lastly, defecation. General dysfunctions of the GI tract include nausea, vomiting, constipation and diarrhea. Mumps, thrush, tonsillitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are diseases of the upper GI tract. Diseases of the lower GI tract include polyps, diverticulitis, diverticulosis, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, intestinal obstruction, appendicitis, and hemorrhoids. The chapter also gives an overview of jaundice, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, and pancreatitis. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the different types of hernias.

Respiratory Pathologies

November 29, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

The respiratory system functions are exchange of gases, regulation of blood pH, providing sense of smell, filtration of incoming air, production of sounds, and elimination of water and heat. Pulmonary ventilation is the movement of air into and out of the lungs by way of muscle contraction and relaxation, and the elastic recoil of the alveoli. The diaphragm is the primary muscle involved with inspiration. Common cold, sinusitis, pharyngitis, larnygitis, influenza, and infectious mononucleosis are the upper respiratory tract infections discussed in this chapter. Massage is contraindicated during acute and active stages of these infections. Overviews of low respiratory tract infections of pleurisy, pneumonia, and tuberculosis are discussed. There are two types of pleurisy: wet and dry. Wet pleurisy refers to an increase in intrapleural fluids, while dry pleurisy refers to decrese in intrapleural fluids. The most common infectious disease causing death in the US in pnenumonia. Tuberculosis is a bacterial lung infection transmitted by inhalation of infected droplets. Massage should be postponed until 4 weeks after the start of treatment. The two main stages of disease are primary and secondary. Most people with primary TB are asymptomatic or the patient may experience generalized symptoms. Secondary TB can present with cough with blood sputum, high fever, night sweats, general anxiety, and shortness of breath. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are characterized by obstructed airflow that worsens with exertion. The chapter overviews asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonconiosis, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, and obstructive sleep apnea. Pulmonary edema and embolism are the vascular disorders discussed. Acute respiratory distress syndrome can result in multiple organ failure and death making it a medical emergency. The chapter concludes with a brief overview of hay fever.

Lymphatic and Immune System Pathologies

November 29, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

The lymphatic system is composed of lymph, lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and lymphoid tissue of organs and glands. The function of the lymphatic system is to drain excess interstitial fluid, transport dietary lipids and vitamins, and to carry out immune functions. The chapter goes into more detailed overview of these functions. The body has two types of immunity: natural and acquired. The two types of lymphocytes are B and T. Both are formed in red bone marrow. B lymphocytes mature in the red bone marrow while T lymphocytes mature in the thymus. The chapter concludes with discussion of conditions of the lymphatic and immune systems.

Cardiovascular Pathologies

November 29, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

This chapter begins with descriptions of the three types of fluids: blood, interstitial fluid, and lymph, that assistance in the maintenance of homeostasis. The main components of the cardiovascular system are blood, heart and blood vessels. The function of blood being to transport glucose, amino acids, lipids and hormones, transporting oxygen to lungs and nutrients to digestive tract, removing wastes, regulation of pH and body temperature, protection of the body from disease, and blood clotting. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes are the types of blood cells. Pericardium, myocardium, endocardium, and epicardium are the four layers of the heart. The type of blood vessels are arteries, capillaries, and veins. Arteries take blood away from the heart, while veins take blood to the heart. Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels and functions to distribute nutrients and remove waste through interstitial fluid. Disorders of blood and circulation are discussed. Followed by an overview of disorders of the heart. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the diseases of arteries and veins.

Endocrine Pathologies

November 26, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

The endocrine system uses hormones to communicate and works in conjuction with the nervous system. Massage can be beneficial to the endocrine system by reducing stress that indirectly lowers stress hormone levels in the endocrine glands. The role of the endocrine system is to regulate activities of smooth and cardiac muscle along with some glands, regulation of chemical composition and volume of fluids, regulation of growth and development, alteration of metabolism, regulation of reproductive processes and participation in circadian rhythms. The endocrine has two categories of glands: exocrine, that secrete into empty body cavities, hollow centers of organs, and surface of the body; and endocrine, that secrete hormones into the bloodstream and nearby cells. Diseases of the pituitary are discussed. Diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid follow next in the chapter. The chapter has an overview of diabetes mellitus. The chapter concludes with an overview of diseases of the adrenal cortex.

Neurologic Pathologies

November 26, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

This chapter begins with an overview of the functions of the nervous system. The nervous system is responsible for mental processes, behavior, and emotional response. It functions in conjunction with the endocrine system to maintain homeostasis. The neuronal structure is discussed next. More detail is given about the central nervous system that is composed of brain, spinal cord, and spinal nerves. A brief description of the peripheral nervous system is given next. The following CNS disoders are reviewed: cerebral palsy, spina bifida, seizure disorders, spinal cord injury, ADHD, and autism. A brief discussion of proper etiquette and care for wheelchair-bound clients. Meningitis, encephalitis, poliomyelitis and postpolio syndrome are infectious diseases discussed. Neurodegenerative and vascular disorders overview follow. The chapter ends with an overview of peripheral nerve disoders. The peripheral nerve disorders discussed are trigeminal neuralgia, bells palsy, myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, degenerative disc disease, herniated disc, sciatica, carpal tunnel, and thoracic outlet syndrome.

Musculoskeletal Pathologies

November 26, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

This chapter falls in line perfectly with information I am learning in chiropractic school. The chapter begins with an overview of the three types of muscle tissue. It then goes into overview about bone structure and classifications. Next, the types of joints are discussed. Following joint discussion comes descriptions of skeletal disorders. Osteoporosis being the most common bone disease and seen more prevalent in women. Osteomalacia, rickets, Padget’s disease, osteomyelitis, Marfan’s, and spondylolysis are also discussed. Spinal deviations and foot deformities follow in discussion. The following joint disorders are discussed next: spondylolisthesis, patellofemoral syndrome, ganglion cyst, baker cyst, bursitis, and TMJ dysfunction. The chapter concludes with discussion on various forms of arthritis, muscular and myofascial disorders, and musculoskeletal injuries.

Dermatologic Pathologies

November 26, 2010

Review of Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2nd edition, by Salvo and Anderson. Within the course of Dr. Johnson.

I found this chapter to be nice review for skin pathologies. While chiropractic care does not involve as global skin contact as massage therapy, it is still important to recognize these pathologies. Visual inspection is a major component of chiropractic physical examination. Therefore, it was not a lost for me to have this review of common dermatologic pathologies. Some of these pathologies being: impetigo, folliculitis, tinea pedis, HSV, eczema, rosacea and contact dermatitis. The pictures are helpful, even though not very delightful.


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